Philosophy and Theology
Philosophy and Theology can be considered as evolutionary twin brothers. The modern-day theologies that are held by mainstream Christianity, Judaism, and Islam have been greatly influenced by ancient Greek (Ionian) philosophy. Before proceeding any further, let’s define these terms as given in the Standard English Dictionary.
* Philosophy – 1. The theory or analysis of the principles that underline the conduct, thought, knowledge, and/or the nature of the universe. 2. The general principles in the field of knowledge. 3. The love of wisdom, and the leading in the continuous search for it.
* Theology – 1. The study of God, religious doctrines, and matters of divinity. 2. The philosophy of religion.
Many ideas of the ancient Greek philosophers were written down and preserved, and throughout the centuries have played a significant role in the scientific knowledge and religious theology we possess today. (Col. 2:8, Acts 17:16-30) They introduced the idea that atoms were the small invisible particles that make up all universal matter. The ancient Greeks also conceived the idea of the transmigration and immortality of the soul, in that the soul was a separate entity within the body or being of man and transmigrated after death. The knowledge in nuclear physics has proved their theory of the atom; however, man having an immortal soul that transmigrates to some other place of existence after death, such as heaven or hell, is not scriptural. Man having an immortal soul cannot be found in the Bible. Immortality is something that will be put on in a resurrection. (1 Cor. 15:51-54; 1 Tim. 6:15-16)
Greek philosophy has an interesting history. Some of its earliest thinkers are long forgotten because their ideas just did not stand the test of time. The following is a chronological history of some of the most famous Greek philosophers. [Personal comments and scripture]
* Thales of Miletus (636-546 BC) Regarded as founder of Ionian natural philosophy, he believed water to be the basis of all things in the universe. [It is a biological fact that water is necessary for life. Pure water is necessary for eternal life. (Rev. 21:6, 22:1; Jn. 4:7-14)]
* Anaximander (611-547 BC) He was the second Thales of the Ionian school of philosophy and believed the universal basis to be the boundless and indefinite. He is ascribed with the invention of geographical maps and the introduction of the sundial. [Life cannot exist without light, and procreation requires energy, which are biological facts. God the Father is the boundless source of energy, and his Son (Christ) the indefinite source of light. (Jn. 1:1-3; Heb. 1:1-3)]
* Anaximenes (6th century BC) He was Anaximander’s pupil and believed that one type of substance underlies the diversity of all observable things. He held that air was the universal substance, but in different degrees of density. [All plant and animal life require air but are not made from it. Plants take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen, while animals take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide, which is a divine arrangement by intelligent design. After Adam was formed from the dust (elements) of the earth, the Lord God performed divine CPR. (Gen. 2:7) The breath (neshamah) is defined intellect or spirit. Adam became a living (chay – raw, fresh, strong, alive, life, a living thing) soul (nephesh – a breathing creature, i.e. animal, vitality in a figurative sense, both bodily and mental – mind). Chay nephesh is translated living creature in Gen. 1:21, 24, 2:19, 9:10, 12, 15, 16, and Lev. 11:46. Nephesh is also translated mind. Adam became a living breathing creature with a mind (intellect) – a human being.]
* Pythagoras (582-507 BC) Philosopher and mystic, he founded the religious brotherhood that believed in the concept of the immortality and transmigration of the soul. Also, a mathematician, he was first to assert that numbers constitute the true nature of all things. [He was right about numbers, but not the concept of man having an immortal soul. The Bible does not teach man as being or with an immortal soul. When man dies, he returns to dust and his intellect sleeps until a resurrection. (Gen. 2:17, 3:19; Dan. 12:2; Ps. 31:12, 88:5, 115:17, 143:3; Eccl. 9:5; Is. 26:19; Luke. 8:52; Rom. 6:7, 8:11; 1 Cor. 15:51-54; 1 Th. 4:14-18; Prov. 6:9-11; Rev. 20)]
* Heraclitus (535-475 BC) Opposed to the idea of a single ultimate reality, he believed that all things were in a constant state of change. [Energy-mass transformation is a state of change. Other changes are like the definitions of some words, such as gay. The Flintstones and Rubbles had a gay ole time but were not homosexual. Is pregnant man a reality? If so, burn every damn dictionary and biology book on the planet!]
* Parmenides (5th century BC) He is often considered the founder of western metaphysics, which is the philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of reality and existence as a whole. It also includes the study of cosmology, which is the study of the origin and structure of the universe as a whole and philosophical theology. This Pre-Socratic thinker held that being is the basic substance and the ultimate reality of which all things are composed, and that motion, change, time, difference, and reality are illusions of the senses. The term being has a special meaning in philosophy and is frequently used in metaphysics for contrasting appearance and nonexistence. It is often synonymous with an unchanging substance, ultimate reality, God, infinity, or all that exists. Aristotle held that being was the subject matter of meta-physics. [If motion, change, time, difference, and reality are illusions of the senses, then his being was an illusion. If you hold your hand in a fire, you will know it is not an illusion because you can sense the flesh burning, but if you insist the fire is an illusion by continuing to hold your hand in it, you will no longer have a hand. That is the ultimate reality of changing flesh with fire! (Rev. 20:11-15)]
* Anaxagoras (500-428 BC) He supposedly made Athens the center of philosophy and been Socrates’ teacher. Rejecting the four-element theory of Empedocles, he suggested all things were composed of an infinite number of particles (atoms). [Today, we know that all things are composed of atoms. (Job 38:38; Gen. 2:7; Ps. 44:25; Eccl. 3:20)]
* Empedocles (495-435 BC) He believed the universe consisted of the four elements: air, fire, water, and earth, and the interaction between love and hate caused the mixing of them. [He must have been Parmenides’ son. Air, water, and earth do consist of elements, but fire is not an element. If these where to constitute human beings, then the person made of air would be the air head, the person of fire the hot head, the person of water the diplomat to cool down the hot head, and the person of earth the hard head since earth’s crust is mainly rock. The pregnant man would be a hardheaded air head!]
* Zeno of Elea (490-430 BC) A disciple of Parmenides, he argued that motion, change, and plurality are just logical absurdities, and only an unchanging being is real. [Tell that to the pregnant man!] He attempted to demonstrate that notions of time and motion are erroneous. [Physics prove that time and motion dictates mass-energy conversions. An evil person can change to good and visa-versa, but all people (good or evil) are real beings. (Ezek. 33:11-20) Good (righteousness) or evil (wickedness) are the only two options which determine eternal life or eternal death. The choice is yours! That is why the Eternal (El) gave it to us!]
* Socrates (464-399 BC) He was the Athenian philosopher who never recorded any of his views because of his belief that writing distorts ideas. He would question the Athenians about their religious, political, and moral beliefs through a technique called dialectic. He is alleged to have said, “The unexamined life is not worth living.” He was charged and brought to trial for corruption of the youth and religious heresy, then sentenced to die, but drank poison. Plato was his student, and the main source of what is known about him. [He must have really pissed off the Athenian Cultural Lawyers Union. If the ACLU had existed during his time defending evolution over creation, I suppose they would be charged, tried, convicted, and sentenced for the same charges. The Greeks loved their Gods, and would not have withstood efforts to remove them, or their philosophical and theological concepts of them from the public arena. Would they have drunk poison? It is a wise idea for people to examine their lives and consider their destiny. (Ps. 8:4-5; Heb. 2:6-7; Eph. 3:11; Ecclesiastes)]
* Democritus (460-370 BC) He proposed the mechanistic theory of a world that required no supernatural forces and held that the constant motion of indestructible atoms was the composition of all things, perception was unreliable, and knowledge could only be obtained through reason. [Is this view atheist? Why wasn’t he charged with religious heresy? The Greeks worshipped 48 Gods and had a statue for one unknown, but he said that none were required. All knowledge is a gift from God. (2 Chr. 1:7-12; Acts 2:38; Is. 11:1-4; Prov. 1:7) Although acquired by human perception and/or observation, scientific knowledge can also be a gift, as God’s to Einstein. Man didn’t invent but only discovered knowledge through understanding his observations, and along with controlled methods of experimentation gained even more. (Job 38:36; Prov. 8:12; Dan. 12:4)]
* Plato (428-348 BC) Considered the Athenian father of Western Philosophy; he traveled widely after Socrates’ death. Upon his return to Athens, he founded an Academy and taught until he died. His writings preserved many of the dialogues between Socrates and other Athenians. Many of Plato’s views are recorded in his most famous book, The Republic. He described an ideal state that postulates philosopher kings specially trained at high levels in moral and mathematical knowledge. His other works analyze the morality of man, nature of knowledge, immortality of the soul, and cosmology. All his works have influenced both science and religious theology over the last two thousand years. [Plato is usually considered the source of the immortal soul doctrine, but it first originated with Pythagoras. Although camouflaged with Greek mythology, his description of the Lost City of Atlantis may have been a stealthy gift from God for a latter day understanding. The scientific method of today can be attributed to the dialectic method of Socrates’ questioning, but aided by observation of methodic experimentation.]
* Diogenes (400-325 BC) As the founder of cynicism, he rejected social conventions, defied traditional comforts, and allegedly lived in a tub. He founded a school for Cynics, and according to legend, he walked around night and day looking for an honest man, but never found one. Cynics believe man should live in a simple state of natural being with few desires and needs. They advocate the moderation, self-discipline, and training of the mind and body. [I know there were schools for Monks, but not for hermits. He would have definitely wasted his time on Wall Street and in Washington DC! A hot bath is relaxing, but I would not want to live in the tub.]
* Aristotle (384-322 BC) He was a scientist, logician, and student of many disciplines. He studied under Plato and later became tutor to Alexander the Great. In 335 BC he founded the Lyceum in Athens, a major school for the study of philosophy and science. He emphasized the observation of nature and analyzed everything in terms of four causes: material cause – the substance a thing is made of, formal cause – the design of the thing, efficient cause – the maker of the thing, and final cause – its purpose of function. In the field of ethics, he believed virtue to be a means between extremes and man’s highest goal should be to use his intellect. [From his four causes, we find substance (man created from the elements of the earth), design (the most complex form of life with intellect), maker (The Creator), and purpose (that which is found in the Scripture of Truth). These constitute the true analysis of the ultimate reality. If wisdom is to be found in philosophy, it is found here. Man’s highest goal should be to know his maker!]
* Epicurus (341-270 BC) A follower of Democritus, he founded the Epicurean Philosophy. Most of his writings have been lost. Epicureans taught that the supreme goal of man should be pleasure and happiness. Early Epicureans sought mental pleasures (knowledge, understanding, and wisdom) over bodily ones. [That line of thought did not gain a general popularity. Man’s great quest for pleasure and happiness has been more bodily that mental. The philosophy of most people is to eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we may die. The mental pleasure writings were most likely the ones that were lost!]
* Zeno (of Citium) the Stoic (334-262 BC) Born in Cyprus, he founded Stoicism. He believed that man should submit to natural law, man’s primary duty is to conform to his destiny, and the soul is a form of matter, not immortal. [He was right about the soul being a form of matter. We all submit to the natural law of gravity, and all organic matter returns to its inorganic state. The Ten Commandments (spiritual law as expansively taught by Jesus Christ) are what we should submit to so that we may conform to our potential destiny. (Ex. 20:1-17; Prov. 3:1, 4:1-7; Matt. 22:37-40; Jn. 14:15,21, 15:10; Rom. 12:2, 8:29; Rev. 12:17, 14:12, 22:14; Ps. 78:7, 103:17-19)]
* Lucretius (99-55 BC) He was a Roman Epicurean poet and philosopher who depicted the entire universe, including the soul, as being composed of atoms. According to his doctrine, the world arose from atoms moving through space, and a god did indeed exist, but not to interfere in human life. [This was long before The Big Bang Theory based on Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and the world’s most famous equation E = mc2. It was far beyond any scientific knowledge at the time. The first hydrogen bomb was detonated in 1952. Roman philosophy and theology were much the same as the Greeks. His theory of universal atoms being the foundation of everything is correct, but God does care about mankind and often intervenes in its affairs. The greatest intervention was 50 years later (55 BC − 50 yrs = 5 BC) when The Eternals’ Word became flesh. (Jn. 3:16) The number 50 also represents Jubilee in Scripture and is also important for counting.]
That list brings us to half a century before the birth of Jesus Christ in 5 BC. Judaism had already become influenced by Greek philosophy following the conquest of Jerusalem by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, then Rome in 37 BC. The Pharisees, Sadducees, scribes, and religious lawyers had made a mockery of the Mosaic religion. It was time for the first advent of Christ to prepare the way for the reconciliation of man back unto God, and to do intellectual battle with the religious elite. (Matt. 23, 21:12-16; Luke. 19:39-48; Jn. 8; Dan. 9:24; 2 Cor. 5:18-19; Heb. 2:14-18)
Some of the philosophers, to put it in everyday language, just didn’t know their butt from a hole in the ground. Others formed the foundation for the scientific knowledge that we possess today, which should give us a better understanding of the ultimate reality. Some erroneous philosophies were adapted to the understanding of scripture and became the doctrines and traditions of men. After Christ’s first advent, many philosophers and theologians of various backgrounds and nationalities greatly influenced the modern theologies in Judaism and Christianity. Islam was founded in 632 AD by the prophet Mohammed, which was supposed to fulfilled the hope of Abraham. (Gen. 17:18-21) Islam has also fell victim to the philosophy and theology of men. The following is a list of philosophers and theologians who have greatly influenced modern day religious thought of the three great creator religions:
* Epictetus (50-138 AD) As an Epicurean and Stoic philosopher, he founded a school of philosophy after being freed from slavery. His book, The Manual, taught that only by detaching ourselves from what is not in our power to control could we attain inward freedom. [He may have been a young child who was an indentured servant/student among the philosophers that approached the Apostle Paul. (Acts 17:18-21, 33-34) Scripture teaches that liberty is the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice, and through a living faith we can detach ourselves from sin and its bondage. (Jn. 8:34-36; Rom. 3-8; 1 Jn.; 1 Cor. 15:56; Jas. 1-2; Rev. 14:12; Acts 26:18; Heb. 11)]
* Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD) He was Roman emperor from 161 AD until his death. As a proponent of the Stoic philosophy, his book, Meditations, claimed that birth and death are natural, and the world is rational and orderly. He was considered a humanitarian, but did persecute the Christians. [The world could be considered as rational and orderly if the few who control it want to see it that way. Most leaders today only see and hear what they want to! How could a person be considered a humanitarian, but be a persecutor at the same time?]
* Plotinus (205-270 AD) Egyptian born, he founded Neoplatonism, which synthesizes the ideas of Plato and others. He believed that all reality is caused by a series of outpourings called emanations from a divine source. He established a school of philosophy that flourished from the second to fifth century, and Neoplatonism was influential for the next thousand years. He was not a Christian but was a major influence on Christianity. [When the philosophical thought of a non-Christian philosopher influences Christian thought, the door is wide open for apostasy. The scriptures state that there would be a falling away of the faith once given. (2 Th. 2:3) I believe it happened long ago. Today, we are trying to come out of centuries of accumulated confusion called Babylonian captivity by the great captivator MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. (Rev. 17)]
* Augustine of Hippo (354-430 AD) Considered one of the greatest among the Latin Church fathers, he emphasized man’s need for grace. His most popular works were Confessions and The Holy City of God. [The Roman Empire acknowledged and accepted Christianity as an official state religion in 321 AD. His writings have greatly influenced both Catholic and Protestant Dogma.]
* Boethius (475-535 AD) He was a Roman statesman, philosopher, and a translator of Aristotle’s works who wrote The Consolation of Philosophy while in prison. His work was widely read throughout the Middle Ages. Addressing reason’s role in the face of misfortune, he established the link between philosophy and Scholasticism. [The term Scholastics was adopted by Christian Philosophers during the Middle Ages as their descriptive title. They followed Aristotle’s empiricism using his logic and linguistic methods of argumentation.]
* Avicenna (980-1037 AD) An Islamic medieval philosopher born in Persia, his Neoplatonist interpretation of Aristotle greatly influenced medieval philosophers for over 300 years, including St. Thomas Aquinas. He was also a physician, and his medical writings were influential for nearly 500 years. [Aristotle’s work influenced Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. His major works were unknown to Europe until the 13th century but became known through Arab philosophers in Spain. Thomas Aquinas adapted the Aristotelian philosophy to his own but had to defend his Christian Aristotelianism against many bitter conservative attacks while a professor of theology in Paris (1268-72). This is a link between Islam (HQ in Baghdad or Babylon) and Christianity (HQ in Rome). The Roman Catholic Church has already announced that the various terms for God, including Allah, are beautiful names for the universal God. Beware of the association and application of linguistic terms to the unknown name of God!]
* Saint Anselm (1033-1109 AD) This Italian monk and Scholastic became archbishop of Canterbury. Considered as the founder of Scholasticism, he integrated Aristotelian logic into theology and believed that reason and revelation were compatible. He is most famous for the ontological argument proving God’s existence. [A revelation from God is a gift and cannot be achieved by the logical reasoning of man. Daniel, John, and the prophets did not reason out their writings. Is man’s reasoning and God’s revelation compatible? (Is. 55:8; Ezek. 36:32; Luke 5:18-26; Mark 8:14-21; Eph. 1:17; Col. 2:8)]
* Averroes (1126-1198 AD) Born in Cordoba, Spain, this Arabian philosopher’s views of compatibility were similar with those of St. Anselm and he wrote detailed commentaries on Aristotle that were influential for centuries. He believed that faith and reason were compatible, but philosophical knowledge was derived from reason. The Church condemned his views. [Why would the Church (Rome) condemn his views if they were similar with Anselm’s? The Christian theologians adapted the Aristotelian philosophy that the Muslim philosophers had shared, and then evicted them and the Jews. In 750 AD the Abbasid family led a coalition defeating the ruling Umayyad family, but Abd AR-Rahman I escaped the general massacre and fled to Spain. He became the emirate of Cordoba in 780, and Islam’s western caliphate persisted until 1031. Following the conquest by the Moors in 711 AD, Muslims, Jews, and Non-Catholic Christians lived harmoniously until the Catholic conquest. The era was known as The Golden Age. The Spanish Inquisition under Ferdinand and Isabella expelled most of the Jews and Muslims, confiscated their property, and murdered others unwilling to convert to Catholicism.]
* Maimonides (1135-1204 AD) He was the Spanish born Jewish philosopher that synthesized Aristotelian and Judaic thought. His works had enormous influence on Jewish and Christian thinking. [Again, we find evidence of Aristotle’s works influencing Judaism. So far, we have seen his works having great influence on all three major religions holding a belief in the same Creator God.]
* John Duns Scotus (1266-1308 AD) Like others before him, this Scottish born Scholastic integrated Aristotelian ideas into his own Christian theology. He taught that all things depend on the divine will as well as God’s intellect. [This is the last philosopher/theologian that mentions the works of Aristotle. St. Thomas Aquinas developed the official Roman Catholic Philosophy in 1259. The Western Roman Empire had been under Papal control for a little over 700 years. The Eastern Orthodox Church had finalized its split from the Western Catholic Church in 1054, which began after the fall of Rome in 476 AD and progressed through the Byzantine period. The Protestant reformers would soon make their mark in history with their dissent and separation, but the relationship between Catholics and Protestants have greatly improved since Vatican Council II (1962-65) and the election of John F. Kennedy, America’s first Catholic President.]
* Sir Thomas More (1478-1535 AD) A very prominent Renaissance humanist, statesman, and Lord Chancellor of England, he was beheaded for refusing to accept the King of England as Head of the Church. He believed in social reform and the ideal peaceful state, and authored the book, Utopia. [Jesus Christ is the only Head of the Church. The last days may resemble the Dark Ages, and God’s people may face the same dilemma as More did when he refused to acknowledge a mortal man as the Head of the Church.]
* Thomas Hobbs (1588-1679 AD) This English materialist, empiricist, and founder of modern political philosophy argued that man is selfish by nature. His famous book, Leviathan, suggested: a powerful absolute ruler and a social contract with man giving up much personal liberty would be necessary to establish peace on earth. [Known anybody who is selfish? Hitler must have read his book. When Jesus Christ returns as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, He will be the powerful absolute ruler, but it will be divine rule under divine law. There will be no socialcontract! The word leviathan is found in Ps. 74:13-14, 104:24-26, Is. 27:1, and Job 41, and comes from the Hebrew word: leviathan – serpent, sea monster. Derived from: ayah – to entwine and unite. LINK the following: anointed cherub – fallen Lucifer – cast back to the earth – Satan – dragon – serpent – sea monster – dreadful diverse beast – rising from the sea – Lost City of Atlantis (Dan. 7:7; Rev. 13:1; Is. 43:16, 11:12; Job 41:25,31; Rev. 8:8; Ezek. 26:19-21)]
* Benedict (Baruch) Spinoza (1623-1677 AD) This Dutch born philosopher was expelled from his Amsterdam Jewish community for heresy in 1656. Then, he was accepted by Christians, but attacked by theologians 14 years later. In his book, The Ethics, he presented his views in a mathematical system of deductive reasoning and concluded that mind and body are aspects of a single substance called God or nature. He declared: Besides God no substance can be granted or conceived. Through mathematics, he set forth geometric proof of the union of man, God, and universe. [The human mind (brain) and body (flesh) are two aspects of the single biological entity that is called the soul (nephesh) that was created in the image (body) and likeness (mind) of God. Man disobeyed his Creator and brought death upon himself. It is human nature for man to be hostile toward his creator and in need of reconciliation, which became possible by the second sacrifice of Christ. I do not know if my understanding is the same as Spinoza’s, but both Jews and Christians had rejected his wisdom. His work was during the peak of the reformation. Why did theologians reject his philosophical wisdom that has so much scriptural support? > Col. 2:8]
* Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716 AD) Considered one of the greatest minds of all time, this German mathematician, philosopher, and diplomat believed that the entire universe is one large system expressing God’s plan. [AMEN!] Leibniz and Sir Isaac Newton discovered calculus and are considered as the forefathers of modern mathematical logic. [The pure language of science is mathematics. When Christ returns, man will be given a pure language. (Zeph. 3:9) As a mathematician, he truly summed up the ultimate philosophy.]
* George Berkeley (1685-1753 AD) He was an Irish philosopher, Anglican Bishop, and a British empiricist who embraced subjective idealism, and believed that everything which exists is based on perception. According to his view, material objects are collections of sensations or ideas in a person’s or God’s mind. This is the bases for subjectivism, which is the theory that all moral values are completely dependent on the personal tastes, feelings, or inclinations of the individual and has no source of validity outside of the human subjective state of mind. [That is the very source of the Anglican problem today concerning sexuality. There are some Bishops that acknowledge their own homosexuality and claim that it is compatible with scripture. They may need to actually read The Holy Bible and stay the hell out of gay pubs! (Lev. 18:22; Rom. 1:24-27)]
* Francois Marie Aroused Voltaire (1694-1778 AD) He was a French philosopher, essayist, historian, and one of the major thinkers of the Enlightenment. A Deist and anti-Christian, he advocated the tolerance of liberal ideas, and called for positive social action. A Deist is a practitioner of deism, which is the philosophical viewpoint that although God may have created the universe and its laws, he removed himself from any ongoing interactions with the material world. [This atheist’s tolerance of liberal ideas continues today with gay and lesbian rights, same-sex marriage, abortion, and other issues. His positive social actions are the laws passed or judiciously legislated from the bench requiring the tolerance of liberal ideas regardless of how contrary they are to those of the community. Free moral choice is every individual’s right, but to force a whole community to except ideas contrary to their ethical standards, moral beliefs, and religious practice is a violation of their first amendment rights. If homosexuals and lesbians want civil unions, they can exercise their common law right to contract, which is protected by the 9th and 10th amendments of the Constitution. They can call it anything they want to, except marriage! Heterosexuals have abused that sacred institution enough with divorce. “What God has put together, let no man (lawyers, judges, and politicians included) put asunder”? (Matt. 19:3-9)]
* David Hume (1711-1766 AD) This British empiricist’s arguments against the proofs for God’s existence are still influential today. He held that moral beliefs have no basis in reason but are solely based on custom. [If custom is the foundation for moralbeliefs, then that explains the greed and corruption that exists in today’s governments and corporations. The custom of corporations is to exact its bottom line by laying-off workers, cutting pay and benefits, or relocating to other countries with lower environmental standards and wages. It is the custom of governments to exact its ideological policies on people. The custom of both has neither regard for the human suffering caused, nor the ultimate consequences of their actions. If the conquest of economic philosophy by greedy corporate policy and political ideology by military might is a good thing to do, regardless of how right it may seem in the eyes of men, then – I don’t want to be right.]
* Immanuel Kant (1724-1804 AD) He is the German philosopher, possibly the most influential of modern times, who synthesized Leibniz’s rationalism and Hume’s skepticism into his own critical philosophy that: ideas do not conform to the external world, but rather, the world can only be known insofar as it conforms to the mind’s own structure. He also claimed that morality requires a belief in God, freedom, and future immortality, although these cannot be scientifically or metaphysically proven. [Morality does require a belief in God, and it is outlined in his Ten Commandments. Man does have freedom of choice, and his future immortality is a gift as stated in John 3:16. The critical philosophy is that only by God through Christ can the possibility of eternal life even exist, but without God is eternal death.]
* Auguste Comte (1798-1857 AD) French founder of Positivism and a social reformer, he invented the term sociology, which brought the world the religion of humanity that replaces God with mankind as a whole. [This is the fruit yielded from atheist France after the French Revolution. The human potential and ultimate destiny of man is laid out in a divine plan by a divine creator, which can only be found in the Scripture of Truth. It is not social evolution! We now have another OLOGY that is manmade.]
* Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 AD) This Danish philosopher and religious thinker founded the religion of Existentialism, which holds that truth is subjectivity, religion a personal matter, and that man’s relationship with God requires suffering. Modern Existentialism holds: since there are no universal values, then man’s essence is not predetermined, but based only on free choice, and that man is in a state of anxiety because of free will, and there is no objective truth. [Man’s relationship with God does not require suffering, although it can bring a closer relationship. This modern philosophy proves that; by free choice man took upon himself the knowledge of good and evil; however, without universal values or objective truth in knowing God, His truth, and His plan for all mankind, man’s predestination is a state of anxiety, but only by his own free will!]
* William James (1842-1910 AD) He was an American philosopher and psychologist who was among the early founders of Pragmatism, and greatly influenced thinkers of his era. He viewed consciousness as actively shaping reality, defined truth as the expedient way of thinking, and believed that ideas are tools for guiding future actions rather than reproductions of our past experiences. Pragmatism is an American philosophy developed in the 19th century with the help of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) and elaborated on in the 20th century by John Dewey. Its central precept is that thinking is the primary guide to action, and that the truth of any idea lies only in its practical consequences. [Philosophy has now evolved into Psychology. I think I’ll just keep my butt on the farm and not get into that loony-ology subject. I’ve done some stupid things in the past but learned from them by thinking that it would be a good idea not to do them again! The ultimate practical consequence will follow the judgment of the truth of ideas on the Last Great Day. (Rev. 20:11-15)]
* Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900 AD) He was a moralist, German philosopher, and poet who rejected all Christian values. He championed a superman who would create a new, life-affirming, heroic ethic by his will to power. [Hitler surely read and believed in his philosophy! Satan will cause to rise and possess a Superman that through a new, life-affirming and heroic ethic will deceive the whole world in the last days. Jesus Christ SUPERSTAR will come and whoop his ass! Again!]
* George Santayana (1863-1952 AD) He was a Spanish born American philosopher, poet, and student of William James, who attempted to reconcile Platonism and materialism by studying how reason works. He found animal faith or impulse to be the basis of reason and belief. [The roaring twenties was a time when people did things on impulse, and that line of thinking persists today. If doing things on impulse is animal faith, then today’s society has gone to the dogs. I’m glad that Choco didn’t, and Coco doesn’t understand philosophy or theology, but if they could, then they would probably take that statement as an insult.]
* George Edward Moore (1873-1958 AD) He was a British philosopher who emphasized the common sense view of the reality of material objects. In the field of ethics, he believed that goodness is a quality known directly by moral intuition, and to try to define it in terms of anything else is a fallacy. [We have finally found a modern philosopher with some common sense in material objects; however, moral goodness can only be learned through an upbringing with family values, education, and the respect and love for others. The intuitiveness of good moral judgment does not come by the power of reason, but only by the accumulation of knowledge in the understanding of wisdom. The best-selling textbook for intuitive moral goodness is The Holy Bible, which I call The Scripture of Truth.]
* Martin Buber (1878-1965 AD) This German-Israeli philosopher was influenced by Jewish mysticism and existentialism, and a major force in 20th century Jewish thought and philosophy of religion. His I and Thou held that God and man could have a direct and mutual dialogue. [That is so true! The quest for truth (seeking) in devoted study of the Holy Scriptures (knocking) with sincere prayer (asking) will bring about great understanding, knowledge, and wisdom. (Matt. 7:7-8; Prov. 9:10; Dan. 2:21) It is also true that a person can have a three-way conversation with our Father and Christ. Conversations in public, when no one can see who you are talking to, might get you put in a straight-jacket and locked up, but if you are truly in the spirit, be confident of your conversation. And praise the Lord!]
That brings us to where the world is today in the religious arena of philosophy and theology. The reasoning of men has polluted Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The philosophies and theologies of men have blinded most if not all of mankind to the truth. There are truths that can be found among all three of the major creator religions, but their many fundamentalists and extremists have all but destroyed any possibility for peace and harmony in the unity of understanding.
Some philosophers and theologians seemed to be on the right track; few indeed were. Others created theologies by philosophical design and visa versa. If natural selection and origin of the species is true, it is only in the evolution of religion. Philosophy and Theology are two close relative species that evolved from the common concept of human reasoning but interbreed and made a hybrid – Philtheology. Today, we still have the two species of foul characteristics, but its many breeds have interbreed and inbreed to the point that our barnyard of philosophies and theologies are nothing more than a compost pile of a vast variety of crap! (Col. 2:8; Lam. 4:4-5; Matt. 15:7-20) We could use its methane gas for our cars and save the corn to feed the poor!
There are some that consider Jesus a great philosopher. That is an insult to Christ! He is the teacher of truth, and there is no reasoning with what he teaches. He is the truth and the light. The Word that became flesh in John 1:1 is the same voice that speaks through the Old Testament Prophets. He is the King of Salem and the High Priest Melchizedek in Genesis 14:18 and the book of Hebrews. He is the voice that spoke to the children of Israel in Exodus 20. He is the Yehovah Elohiym that breathed the breath of life into Adam in Genesis 2:7. “All things were made by him, and without him was not anything made that was made.” (Jn. 1:3) [m = E ÷ C2]Christ is Lord! He is the possessor of wisdom, and the sons of men are his delight! We can become his brothers if we trust in him and keep his ways. (Prov. 8:22-36; Jn. 14:15, 15:10; Matt. 12:48-50; Mk. 3:33-35)
I must call myself a Christian because there is no other word in the English vocabulary that is appropriate. The blood of Jesus Christ’s sacrifice is the one and only hope for our species. That is not mere human reasoning, philosophy, or theology. It is the one, and the only, critical truth in the ultimate reality of the great human potential.
Love them ___ology words! Well, kinda? But they are necessary in the use of language. Biology is the science in the understanding of how living organisms function. It has no damn business in how they came to exist! That’s a matter for another ___ology word. Psychology is the understanding of the mind and thought processes, and I’m not so sure that it is a science, but more like medicine, which is a practice. Seems there is a lot of that going on these days by a bunch of moronic-demonic politicians with some sort of medical degree hell bent on tyranny over all.
A sports team can practice all spring and never win a game. I’ve seen a few over the years. Others have gone to the super series. Faucinsten and his gang of Igor’s just can’t make up their minds as to what is good for the health of the masses that they practice their dictates on. But so far, they’re ahead. Just hit a home goal. RBI mandates are mounting up like baskets of balls. The covid-ball is being run to the end zone. Touchdown!
WHO rides the white horse? Does its rider have a sidekick? Must be, since this type of insanity abounds in other ___ologies. Biology and Psychology have interbred and transformed. Psycho-bio-trans-ology+
It is biology that determines the sex of an individual. There are only two sexes – male and female. The evidence is between one’s legs. It is not what one thinks it is in between the ears! That is a matter of psychology. I am sticking to the biology of the matter. The actual process of sex determination is the prize to which swimmer that reaches the finish line first. How the race begins was designed to be a wonderful physical function between a man and a women united as one in the likeness and image of their creator. Anything outside of that is a matter of several ___ology words. Now, to the biological facts of the procreation of sons and daughters.
Chromosomes are a thread-like complex structural design that are made up of a combination of DNA and protein found in the nuclei of cells. In humans, each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Of these 23 pairs, 22 pairs (44 chromosomes) are non-sex chromosomes, also known as autosomes and a single pair makes up the sex chromosome. A cell that contains two complete sets of chromosomes is called a diploid cell, and that which contains only one set is called a haploid cell. Only egg and sperm cells contain one set, whereas all the other cells of the body contain two sets. Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual are known as sex chromosomes.
A single human sex chromosome is labeled either X or Y, and these chromosomes pair up as either XX or XY. An XX designation signifies that the person will be a female, while an XY pair will be a male. This is determined by which sperm cell wins the prize! Chromosomes come in pairs and there is no third sex chromosome Z – nor any other letter of the alphabet plus mathematical signs that can form a transgender+ pair. That’s the difference between being a hap or a dip – loid.
I have recently learned that Facebook now recognizes 53 different transgender classifications, whether they be pronouns, nouns, adverbs or adjectives. Hell, maybe even a few verbs, prepositions and conjunctions too. Sure aren’t no 53 pronouns in the English vocabulary! There is one pronoun for them all, except male and female: IT! Remember cousin IT on the Adams Family? Couldn’t see any legs. IT was all hair with a hat and a pair of sunglasses occasionally smoking a cigar. I have just one question. How in the hell can one get 53 different genders when there are only 46 chromosomes in the human species? And, they are paired up in 23 pairs with only one being a haploid. When two haploid cells come together in the unity of love, the parents are happywith the outcome whether son or daughter. Mr. Loid was happy with all of his daughters that were the outcome of all those XX combination haploids.
Another thing about chromosomes. Humans have one chromosome that is fused, which has been a mystery. Why? Human chromosome number 2 is a fused chromosome. How it got that way is unknown to science. They don’t look in Genesis! Most think and some claim that it is proof man evolved from apes. How foolish! Think it may have something to do with the creation of one sex then the making of the other?
[The above addition is the text portion of “What Is One’s Sex? – Biology or Psychology” a blog on my website.]